What is plant propagation and what is cutting in plants? All that you should know about their types and features you can find in this article.
The easiest way in plant propagation guide of plant propagation for the garden is to spread the seeds evenly and thinly on the surface of the compost mixture and sprinkle them with a thin (1 cm) layer of coarse sand. Place the pot outside in a shady place and remember to water. Some trees and shrubs require a period of cold weather to come out of their dormant state.
If you have nowhere to rush, leave it to nature itself: just leave the pot outside until the seeds hatch. But you can speed up this process by creating an artificial winter for them: put the pot in the refrigerator for a couple of months. Some seeds will need to be kept in the pot for two years or longer before they germinate.
With this method of propagating, you have no guarantee whether the germinated seed will resemble its parent or not.
Propagating Plants by Cuttings
How to take cuttings from plants? A plant that has grown from a cut will be more similar to its parent, in addition, it will take root faster than another plant that has sprouted from a seed. Not all trees and shrubs can be easily propagated by, but most can.
How to grow cuttings? Cuttings are prepared very simply by separating the non-flowering shoots from the plant. The length of the shoots will depend on the type of shrub, but choose a material whose nodes (buds) are located as close to each other as possible. We advise you to work with the apical sprout while removing the apical leaves. When to plant cuttings? Make an incision under the last knot, after removing all the leaves. This last knot is then dipped in the freshly prepared rooting powder and then placed rooting plants from cuttings compost (50% compost + 50% peat), or in a grower, or in a pot that can be covered with a plastic bag or other transparent material. Depending on the length of the shoot, there may be other nodes above or below ground level.
Some plants will take stem cutting propagation very readily if you provide them with a heel. This is a piece of old wood at the base of the stalk and is taken from where the stalk joined the main stalk.
On the part of the stem planting that remains below the ground, the leaves should be removed to prevent rotting, and the leaves above the ground should be removed to prevent moisture loss by root clipping. They should be removed carefully using a sharp knife or razor. The topmost leaves remain, but if they are large, they should be halved by making neat cuts with a razor.
Potting soil should be kept moist and protected from direct sunlight, although your plantings will need as much light as possible. Rooting times vary, but the beginning of new growth from the nodes most often means that the roots have already formed and it is time to plant your plantings in individual larger containers. Some plants, such as roses, take root with ease from large plant cutting, they can be stuck directly into the ground in some shady spot. The soil should be light and loose and remember to moisturize it.
How to grow plants from cuttings? If you don’t know how to propagate, there are some plants that reproduce by shoots cut at the beginning of the year, when they are not yet lignified (propagation by green, summer stem tip cutting). They should be trimmed with a razor blade or sharp knife directly below the leaf node, so that a 5-10 cm long stalk is formed, depending on the plant. Remove all the lower leaves and try to make the cut as clean as possible. If the plant has large, large leaves, they should be cut in half to reduce the inevitable moisture loss through evaporation. How to plant cuttings? The end of the cutting should be dipped in a rooting accordion and placed in a mixture of garden sand and peat. Until roots appear, the mixture should be kept moist in a growing room or with a plastic bag.
Other propagating plants from cuttings can be cut when the shoots are already lignified and firm enough (propagation by lignified, winter cuttings). They are usually cut in the fall, so they are not placed in pots until next year. Lignified cuttings 25-30 cm long are obtained in the fall, plant propagation by cuttings off the matured shoots of the current year. The bottom leaves and all soft ends must be removed. The lower part of the cutting (7.5-10 cm) should be placed in a pot or shallow groove and covered with a mixture of garden sand and peat. It is better to protect the cuttings from direct sunlight and do not forget to water. Thin shoots, such as those produced by barberry, may experience a lack of nutrients before new roots are formed: in this case, it is necessary to use cuttings with a heel and cut off some of the old wood that contains enough nutrients. Such cuttings should be placed in pots. The mixed version is called the use of semi-lignified – sometimes they are called semi-mature, or shoots of the first year of growth – cuttings, which are most often cut in the summer.
Propagation of Plants by Layering
Layering is a very simple technique that can be a good propagation tool for particularly difficult plants, but it is time-consuming. The stem is unbent from the parent plant and fixed under the surface of the earth either with a peg or pressed down with a heavy stone. In the center of the part of the plant that is in the ground, it is necessary to make a short incision, and bend the top of the shoot up and secure it with a peg. Don’t forget to water the shoots. It is difficult to say how long it will take for the roots to appear, in some especially difficult cases it will take years, but it’s starting plants from cuttings and new leaves on the branches of the shoot will be a sign that the offspring has taken root. After that, the cut is cut from the parent plant.
For a variety of reasons, it is sometimes more convenient to grow a tree or shrub using a so-called stock, instead of the question of how to grow a plant from a clipping, namely the root and stem of another plant. Maybe the tree you are looking for is growing too fast, so grafting it onto a slower-growing stock can keep it compact or even miniature. Sometimes it is possible to grow two species on the same plant or to produce wonderful chimeras.
This method is most often used for the propagation of plants that start new plants from cuttings, but a number of shrubs forming side shoots can be propagated by removing part of the plant as a whole, with roots, and planting the resulting material in another place.
Reproduction by Spores
This method of growing plants from clippings is quite difficult, but fern lovers can try it.
With proper care, spores appear on the seamy side of adult leaf plates. If desired, such disputes can be bought in the form of mixtures of different or one type. To plant spores, you need special soil, which includes crushed brick chips and peat mixture.
The substrate is poured into a pot, which should be small, low and wide. Smooth its surface and compact slightly. After that, spores are evenly distributed on the surface of the soil. Cover the pot with glass on top, and then place it in the water poured into the container. To improve the result, instead of tap water, it is recommended to use thawed or rainwater (it is softer). Spores should be placed in a dark and warm place, while making sure that there is always liquid in the container. The first shoots can be seen after about 4–5 weeks. You should remove the cover from the pot after 4–8 weeks after the seedlings are strong. Grown plants need a pick, which is made in special trays for germinating seeds. The grown seedlings need to be planted in separate pots.
Reproduction by Offspring
How to grow flowers from cuttings? The daughter plant that develops from the base of the mother is the offspring. After such plants develop well, they are separated from the mother with a sharp knife or with your hands, while trying to make a cut closer to the main flower. We must try to ensure that the separated offspring has many of its own roots. The separated offspring are planted in an individual pot, and they are provided with the same care as for cuttings.
Small bulbs appear on the mother bulb plant. They must be carefully separated and placed in a separate container. They usually bloom after 1 or 2 years.
Reproduction by Roots
You can propagate degremona, Kalanchoe, degremon bryophyllum, Kalanchoe tubule.
How long do plant cuttings take to root? As a rule, children with their own roots develop at the tips of the leaf plates of these plants. Separate them with your fingers, while you need to be very careful not to damage the delicate roots. They are planted in containers filled with moist earth mixture. When the flowers grow, they should be planted in separate pots.
Root Hair Reproduction
You can propagate roots hair for an episode, Braided Saxifrage, Chlorophytum, Tolmiya.
At the ends of the shoots of such plants, small daughter plants (hair) appear. Then the hair is simply carefully separated and planted in a moist soil mixture. A plant hair must be rooted in the same way as when grafting.
Seedlings and cuttings must be planted in good compost for seedlings. How to get cuttings to root? Once they are strong enough, you can transplant them. Do not plant them in pots in winter, cold weather can kill the plant before it resumes growth. It is best to plant them in large pots deep enough for long roots until the plant is old enough to be planted in the garden. Plants obtained by propagation by side shoots or by dividing can be planted immediately if they are already large enough.
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